Date: April 8, 2015
Contact: Tamie McGowen
Phone: (916) 657-5060
(scroll down for photos)
SACRAMENTO — You may
know that Caltrans is celebrating its 120th anniversary. But did you know that
the pressure to create a state highway system came not from automobile
manufacturers or drivers, but instead from bicycle enthusiasts and manufacturers
in the 1800s?
The most common way to travel in the late 19th century — other than
train — was horse, wagon, coach, foot — or the craze at that time — the bicycle. Bikes
were so popular that by 1890, more than one million bicycles were being
built each year, but roads, especially those that connected cities and towns,
were in poor condition.
"Cycling enthusiasts initiated the push for a connected highway
system, and even in 1895, with the many ways people traveled, we were well on
our way to a multimodal highway system," said Caltrans Director Malcolm Dougherty.
The League of American Wheelmen, now known as the League of
American Bicyclists, formed in 1880, and at one point in the 19th century had
more than 100,000 members. They were at the forefront of the Good Roads
Movement — a movement at the local, state, and federal levels to improve the
nation's poorly maintained roads — roads shared with horsemen, wagon drivers and
pedestrians and that often created safety issues for the diverse travelers.
Caltrans' history begins in 1895 when the California Legislature created
the Bureau of Highways, consisting of three commissioners, R.C. Irvine, Marsden
Manson and J.L. Maude, who were tasked with studying highway needs and
recommending a state highway system.
Irvine, Manson and Maude set out on a buckboard in 1895 and spent that
year and part of the next traveling to every county in California. In Nov. 1896,
they submitted their 1895-1896 biennial report to Gov. James H. Budd, stating,
"the roads of California are in a deplorable condition. The absolutely
systemless manner in which the majority of the roads in the State have been
located and constructed, and are being maintained, as well as the extensive
unnecessary mileage, are evident to anyone who has traveled over the State."
The commissioners further reported, "The influence of the bicycle
on agitation for improved highways cannot be overestimated. Millions of dollars
have been invested in the manufacture of these easy and graceful machines of
locomotion, and this agitation for better roads is due more directly to the
efforts of the wheelman than to any other one cause. . . Every wheelman is a
preacher of the gospel of good roads."
Around the turn of the 20th century, automobiles became increasingly
popular, paving the way for the highway system as we know it today, and as
California and motorized transportation evolved, so has the state's
transportation system, helping make California the world's 8th largest economy.
The state highway system now boasts more than 50,000 highway lane
miles and more 13,000 state-owned bridges. It has about 32 million
registered vehicles traveling nearly 90 billion vehicle miles each year.
The state's transportation system has also seen many firsts. The Bill
Keene Memorial Interchange in Los Angeles was the world's first stack
interchange. When it opened, the Yerba Buena Island bore of the San Francisco-Oakland
Bay Bridge was the largest transportation bore in the world. Botts dots, the
reflective bumps that separate highway lanes? We have Caltrans inventors to
thank for those. California has also been recognized as a leader in seismic
design, and the self-anchored suspension span of the San Francisco-Oakland is
the largest in the world.
"We've made it our mission to provide a safe, sustainable,
integrated and efficient transportation system to enhance California's economy
and livability," said Dougherty. "It's a system that now includes automobiles,
trains, bikes, pedestrians, airplanes and mass transit, and as technology
improves and the way we travel changes, Caltrans will change with it."
To celebrate its 120-year anniversary, Caltrans will post
historical facts on social media throughout 2015. During the 120th anniversary
week, there also will be displays in the Caltrans Headquarters lobby and cafeteria
and the department's website, www.dot.ca.gov.
What started in 1895 as the Bureau of Highways, with just three
commissioners, has grown into today's Caltrans with about 20,000 employees
across the state.
California's population in 1895 was about 1.5 million, and now,
nearly 25 times as many people — almost 40 million — call California home.
The three Bureau of Highway commissioners recommended a 4,500-mile
state highway system. That system now has more than 15,000 miles of highway
that contain more than 50,000 lane miles connecting all parts of the state.
When the Bureau of Highways was created, automobiles were
virtually unknown in California, but now, there are more than 30 million
registered vehicles in the state.
In 1900, an elevated cycleway, a little over a mile long, opened
in Pasadena with plans to extend it to Los Angeles. With the arrival of the
automobile, the project was abandoned, and the cycleway's area later became the
Arroyo Seco Parkway — California's first freeway — and the oldest freeway in the West.
Important events in Caltrans' history: http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/paffairs/about/cthist.htm
Caltrans library and history center online: http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/CHPC/historylinks.html
The Federal Highway Administration's history of the nation's
highway system: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/93fall/p93au1.cfm
This photo shows the Healdsburg Wheelmen with their
bicycles on West Street on a run to Skaggs Springs in 1895. All photos courtesy of Caltrans. Click each to enlarge.
Bureau of Highways: R.C. Irvine in buckboard, J.L. Maude with camera, and Maje,
Mr. Irvine's Gordon setter. Picture taken in Riverside County in 1896.
Automobile travelers on a California road in May 1910.
This 1911 photo shows a survey party with buggy and mule team. They were surveying
for what would become the state's first highway contract.
This undated photo shows an unpaved part of the state highway system in Colusa
In 1915, the "Convict Labor Law" was enacted,
state to use convict labor for highway construction. Inmates worked with hand
labor methods to build highways in mountainous areas, as shown in this photo of
teams, plows, and Fresno scrapers working along the Smith River in Del Norte
County in 1923.
Culbert L. Olson's car leads the long procession to the site of the official
opening ceremonies for the California's first freeway, the Arroyo-Seco Parkway.
The Parkway was dedicated on December 30, 1940, and marked the beginning of the
freeway era in the Golden State.
March 1940 shows workers clearing rock in Sacramento and El Dorado Counties for
U.S. Highway 50 between Folsom and Placerville.
2009 photo shows the U.S. Highway 101 and State Route 110 interchange in Los
Angeles. It was the world's first stack interchange.
2012 picture shows the Amtrak California Capitol Corridor — one of the three Caltrans-supported
intercity passenger rail lines.
cyclists ride between the lines of a new bike lane that is part of a "complete
street" project that turned California Street in downtown Redding into a
thoroughfare for all, accommodating motorists, cyclists and pedestrians.