Loading Joshua tree paper pulp at the mill near the Southern Pacific Railroad's Ravenna depot.
Carleton E. Watkins shot this series of photographs
while the Joshua tree paper mill near Ravenna was active, which was probably the late 1870s through 1886. We have an early date of 1879
here and a possible closing date
in this story. Apparently both Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) and our common
yucca (Yucca whipplei) were harvested from the desert between the SPRR Ravenna and Mojave depots and brought to Ravenna for processing.
According to the 1879 story referenced above, the mill was only about 100 yards from depot. At first, only the initial stages of processing occurred at Ravenna, and
the product was shipped to Santa Clara in northern California for pulping. Later, possibly in 1884 when a British company set up shop, pulping
was done at Ravenna.
This photograph is undated. The Bancroft Library uses the date of 1876 for its collection of "Watkins' New Boudoir Series Yo Semite and Pacific Coast"
images, of which this is one, but that should be considered an "earliest" date for the collection.
"Watkins' New Boudoir Series Yo Semite and Pacific Coast" photographs consisted of mounted 5⅜"x8⅜" albumen prints made from negatives from Watkins' New Series, i.e.,
the photographs he made from 1876 until about 1890. (Boudoir photos are cabinet photos.) Watkins had been wiped out as a result of the Panic of 1873; in 1874 the Bank of California, which had loaned him money to expand his San Francisco
studio, went under. He had collateralized the loan with his photographs and had to start over.
Watkins was in the Santa Clarita Valley in June 1877 when he shot the new Pico oil works,
and he probably shot the new San Fernando train tunnel at the same time.
In 1880 he may have returned to the area while traveling to Southern California on the Southern Pacific.
Those dates are probably too early for this series of photographs because one of them he titles "Loading Pulp at Revena." As stated,
we suspect pulping came a few years
About Carleton E. Watkins, Photographer
From the Bancroft Library at U.C. Berkeley
Carleton E. Watkins was born in Oneonta, Oswego county, New York, on November 11, 1829. He was the youngest of five children of a Scottish innkeeper. During his youth he became acquainted with Collis P. Huntington, who frequented his father's hotel. Soon after the discovery of gold, both young men went to California, where Huntington later became one of the Big Four who built the Central Pacific Railroad.
In 1854, while working as a clerk in a store on Montgomery Street, Watkins met R. H. Vance, the daguerreotypist who had studios in San Francisco, San Jose and Sacramento. The employee at Vance's San Jose studio had suddenly quit and Vance asked Watkins if he would fill in until a permanent replacement could be found. Although he knew nothing of photographic processes, Watkins agreed. For the first few days he was simply the care-taker of the studio, but when Vance could not find a new operator, he instructed Watkins in coating the daguerreotype plates and making exposures. With only the briefest instructions, Watkins was able to make portraits and completely operated the gallery for a short period. In 1857 or 1858 Watkins returned to San Francisco where he established his own photographic studio for portraits and view photography.
Watkins usually spent a large portion of the summer traveling throughout California, leaving his gallery and studio in the hands of an assistant. In 1858 or 1859 he visited the Mariposa Grove and was the first person to photograph the "Grizzly Giant." In 1861, Watkins visited the Yosemite Valley and made the first 18" x 22" landscape photographs in California (and possibly the world). He made many more trips to Yosemite during the 1860s and 1870s.
In 1868 Watkins made his first trip to Oregon, where he made the first photographic reproductions of the Columbia River. Five years later, Watkins went to Utah with his wagon, team and photographic equipment on railroad cars. Thanks to his friend Collis P. Huntington, he traveled free. He was accompanied on this trip by close friend and artist William Keith, who made extensive use of Watkins' photographs for many of his oil paintings.
During the winter of 1871-72, Watkins expanded his San Francisco gallery (the Yosemite Gallery), which put an extra strain on his finances. When the Bank of California went under in 1874, Watkins lost his Yosemite Art Gallery to competitors J.J. Cook and I.W. Taber. Not only did his competitors take over his Gallery, they took all of his negatives as well. Watkins then began the task of rebuilding his collection, which meant rephotographing many of the sites he had visited earlier in his career. "Watkins' New Series" of views replaced those lost in the foreclosure. Watkins did become reassociated with the Yosemite Gallery, first as a photographer, and later as manager, but never as the owner.
Watkins went to the Comstock Lode, near Virginia City, Nevada, in 1876. Here he made many of the photographs that comprise the Hearst Collection. It was probably during this trip that he met Frances Sneed, who later managed his Montgomery Street studio and became his wife on November 11, 1880 (Watkins' fiftieth birthday). They had two children: a daughter, Julia, and a son, Collis.
In 1880, Watkins went to Southern California for the first time and traveled along the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Later he went to the "End of the Track" and as far as Tombstone, Arizona. The photographs taken by Watkins on this trip represent some of the earliest views of San Bernardino, San Gabriel, Pasadena, Los Angeles and San Diego. On the way back to San Francisco, he followed the old overland stage road, traveling the greater part of the way in his wagon and photographing most of the Franciscan missions. These pictures constitute the earliest photographic collection of California Missions.
On a second trip to the Northwest in 1890, Watkins made a series of stereoscopic views in Victoria, B.C. He extended this trip into Montana where he made 18" x 22" views of the Anaconda copper mines and other properties. His last large commercial job and long country trip was to photograph the development work of the Kern County Land Company near Bakersfield. He made seven hundred views using 8" x 10" dry plate negatives. In the late 1890s, Watkins began to photograph the Hearst Hacienda near Pleasanton for Phoebe Apperson Hearst, but ill health prevented him from completing the assignment.
Watkins was in the process of negotiating with Stanford University for the sale of his plates, photographs, etc. when the 1906 earthquake struck San Francisco. By this time, Watkins was partially blind, in poor health and experiencing financial difficulties. He had been living with his family in his studio on the top floor of a building on the southeast corner of Ninth and Market Streets. Immediately following the quake, Watkins' wife and daughter went to the refugee camp at the Presidio. Watkins was led by his son to the home of his old friend, C. B. Turrill, who had assisted Watkins financially in the past. Watkins' entire collection was destroyed in the fire which followed the quake. He was shocked by the loss of his life's work and shortly thereafter retired to his small ranch near Capay in Yolo County. The ranch had been deeded to Watkins through the offices of Collis P. Huntington of the Southern Pacific Railroad for his faithful, but unpaid, service to the railroad.
Watkins never recovered from the shock of losing his entire collection in the San Francisco fire. He managed to live at the ranch with his family until it became necessary to have him committed to the Napa State Hospital at Imola, Calif., in 1910. He died June 23, 1916, at the age of 87 and was buried on the hospital grounds.
Sources: "The Early Pacific Coast Photographs of Carleton E. Watkins" by J. W. Johnson, Professor of Hydraulic Engineering, University of California Berkeley; and "The Life and Photography of Carleton E. Watkins", by Peter E. Palmquist.